1.) High fat/carb meal spikes
Consuming too many carbs and too much fat elevates blood sugar. Since fat digests slower then carbs, it can cause a problem for people taking insulin.
"Fast-acting insulins like Humalog, Novolog and Apidra work in the body for three to four hours. After enjoying a high-fat meal, these insulin’s might begin working before a significant amount of glucose reaches the bloodstream – and the insulin may be done working before all the glucose gets there."
"This means a glucose reading can be in-range two hours after a high-fat dinner, but the level can elevate above normal five or more hours later."
To avoid carb-or fat-related spikes:
-Stick to the dietary guidelines that work for you.
-If you enjoy an occasional high-fat meal – you may need to alter the dose and timing of your insulin.
-If using oral medications, it can help to do some physical activity (e.g., walking) after consuming a high-fat meal.
2.) The Dawn Effect:The Dawn Phenomenon refers to high morning blood sugar readings, usually before sunrise between 3am-8am. The dawn phenomenon is caused by hormonal interactions, not low blood sugar.
"In non-diabetics, elevated glucose at dawn helps the body prepare for morning activity, and insulin keeps the glucose level in check. For those with diabetes, there may be insufficient insulin to curb the elevation in blood sugar."
Scientists generally agree that the Dawn Phenomenon is caused by counter regulatory hormones that are produced during sleep, such as cortisol, which can disrupt the effectiveness of insulin.
The temporary insulin resistance due to hormonal interference then leads to high morning blood sugar.
Keeping blood sugar stable throughout the night can help to prevent the dawn phenomenon.
3.) Somogyi Effect:
"If there is a rapid drop in glucose during sleep, the body works to elevate blood sugar by releasing glycogen (glucose) from stores in the liver and muscles. The body might release too much glycogen, causing blood sugar to “rebound” into hyperglycemia."
The drop in glucose typically happens around 3 a.m., followed by elevated glucose levels toward morning.
The Dawn Phenomenon vs. The Somogyi Effect:
The only way to tell the difference between the “dawn phenomenon” and the “somogyi effect” is to take a blood sugar reading at about 3am during the night.
If blood sugar is high throughout the night – you are probably experiencing the dawn phenomenon.If blood sugar falls too low during the night, and then goes high in the morning – you are probably experiencing “rebound hyperglycemia” (the Somogyi effect.)
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*The information provided above is provided for educational purposes only. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice and care. If you have specific needs, please see a professional health care provider.